If one person's ?

Grandparent

Great-grandparent

Great2-grandparent

Great3-grandparent

Great4-grandparent

Great5-grandparent

is the other person's
?

then they are

Grandparent

1st cousins

1st cousins once removed

1st cousins twice removed

1st cousins thrice removed

1st cousins four times removed

1st cousins five times removed

Great-grandparent

1st cousins once removed

2nd cousins

2nd cousins once removed

2nd cousins twice removed

2nd cousins thrice removed

2nd cousins four times removed

Great2-grandparent

1st cousins twice removed

2nd cousins once removed

3rd cousins

3rd cousins once removed

3rd cousins twice removed

3rd cousins thrice removed

Great3-grandparent

1st cousins thrice removed

2nd cousins twice removed

3rd cousins once removed

4th cousins

4th cousins once removed

4th cousins twice removed

Great4-grandparent

1st cousins four times removed

2nd cousins thrice removed

3rd cousins twice removed

4th cousins once removed

5th cousins

5th cousins once removed

Great5-grandparent

1st cousins five times removed

2nd cousins four times removed

3rd cousins thrice removed

4th cousins twice removed

5th cousins once removed

6th cousins

               

Chart relationships as sentences

Reminder: the closest relationship prevails — note that cousinship is not calculated between individuals when one is descended from the other, for example, two individuals are not called cousins if they are any degree of grandparent, parent and child. Also cousinship is not calculated between individuals of any degree of aunt/uncle and nephew/niece relationship to each other.

  • If we share the same parents we are siblings
  • If we share grandparents but have different parents we are first cousins
  • If we share great grandparents but have different grandparents we are second cousins
  • If we share great-great grandparents but have different great grandparents we are third cousins

 

  • My parent's sibling is my Aunt / Uncle
  • My grandparent's sibling is my grandaunt / granduncle or great aunt /uncle

 

Similarly

  • My sibling's child is my Nephew / Niece
  • My sibling's grandchild is my grandnephew / grandniece

 

  • My first cousin's child and I are first cousins once removed (one generation difference between us)
  • My first cousin's grandchild and I are first cousins twice removed (two generations difference between us)

 

Similarly

  • My parent's first cousin and I are first cousins once removed (one generation difference between us)
  • My grandparent's first cousin and I are first cousins twice removed (two generations difference between us)

 

  • My second cousin's child and I are second cousins once removed (one generation difference between us)
  • My second cousin's grandchild and I are second cousins twice removed (two generations difference between us)

 

Similarly

  • My parent's second cousin and I are second cousins once removed (one generation difference between us)
  • My grandparent's second cousin and I are second cousins twice removed (two generations difference between us)

 

  • My third cousin's child and I are third cousins once removed (one generation difference between us)
  • My third cousin's grandchild and I are third cousins twice removed (two generations difference between us)

 

Similarly

  • My parent's third cousin and I are third cousins once removed (one generation difference between us)
  • My grandparent's third cousin and I are third cousins twice removed (two generations difference between us)

Following this pattern, it can be determined that xth cousin y-times removed means either of the following:

  • The xth cousin of your direct ancestor y generations previously (eg. your great-grandparent's fifth cousin is your fifth cousin thrice removed); or
  • Your xth cousin's direct descendant y generations away (e.g. your fifth cousin's great-grandchild is also your fifth cousin thrice removed)
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